Turkish troops on the Danube Front, 1854. Taken by Carol Szathmari.
The opening stages of the Crimean War occurred in the Danube area as the Russians moved into the Turkish sphere in 1853. Although theoretically the superior force, the Russian advance was slow going, and a year later, against stubborn Turkish resistance and the coming forces of the Western allies, the Russians were forced to raise the siege of Silistra, their furthest meaningful advance, and begin their retreat.
examples of Ottoman-era Balkan Cyrillic Orthodox manuscripts influenced by Islamic illumination and miniatures from the 16th and 17th cent. the first three belong to Jovan from Kratovo (today in Macedonia), who was the most obvious and probably most influential artist in this style, and the second two are from the Karan (near Užice, Serbia) gospel (1608), written by a priest named Vuk. its illuminations are most likely the work of a hired trained Muslim miniaturist (they were not hard to find back then) and Vuk was the one who wrote the text.
taken from Joint issue of El Prezente: Studies in Sephardic Culture (vol. 7) & Menorah: Collection of Papers (vol. 3), dedicated to the subject of Common Culture and Particular Identities: Christians, Jews and Muslims in the Ottoman Balkans and edited by Eliezer Papo & Nenad Makuljević.
Ottoman Medical Students With Cadaver, Abdullah Frères, 1885.
Modern-style medical schools were first opened in the Ottoman Empire in 1839 at the beginning of the Tanzimat period. These “Tıbbiye” schools trained scores of Ottoman students such as those pictured here in the modern medical sciences, producing not just a core of competent doctors but also many prominent intellectuals such as Abdullah Cevdet, a Kurdish intellectual and physician as well as a prominent figure in the Young Turk movement.